Investment in sanitation generally concentrates either on household toilet promotion following rural models or sewerage construction, but the latter is often not economically viable or is out of reach for most cities and towns. With urban growth, water supply is professionalised and developed as a service, but sanitation is not. Together with city authorities, SNV works on city-wide sanitation solutions.

Our Urban Sustainable Sanitation & Hygiene for All programmes integrates work on city sanitation planning, compliance strategies, behavioural change communication with a pro-poor market based approach that includes business models for toilet upgrading, emptying, treatment and where possible, re-use. Health and safety of services for both consumers and workers is essential, and goes beyond the simplistic distinction between manual and mechanical emptying.

We work with communities of manual emptiers to develop service models that are safe, affordable and generate employment and income. Furthermore, the programme works with local authorities to create an appropriate enabling policy and regulatory environment for services at the local level, and guiding stakeholders through a process of informed choice for the selection of treatment and/or re-use technologies.

Rajeev Munankami

Senior Advisor & Programme Leader FSM

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