Ending Drought Emergencies: Climate Proofed Infrastructure for Improved Water Supply and Sanitation in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands Areas (EDE-CPIRA)



Almost 1/3 of constructed rural water points are dysfunctional in Kenya at any given time, finds an SNV water mapping report conducted in Kenya in 2013.

Rural water systems in Kenya are mostly managed by voluntary Water Users Associations (WUAs) that often lack the business know-how required to ensure the financial and commercial sustainability of services. WUAs suffer from poorly set up governance and management structures. This is further exacerbated by a lack of reliable data and dilapidated water infrastructure.

Traditionally, the delivery of water supply involves high capital investment and infrastructure development. Because rural and peri-urban areas are not considered commercially viable investment areas, WUAs struggle to manage and improve their rural water systems. Research has shown that poorly performing water systems in rural and peri-urban areas require technical assistance and start-up grants to make them commercially attractive to private investors. In response, the government is searching for creative ways to ensure that water reforms and innovation benefit populations that remain unserved or underserved.

Scope and approach

For a period of four years (January 2020 to December 2023),  SNV will bring to scale the service delivery model approach Public-Private-Community Partnerships (PPCPs) in the arid and semi-arid counties of Baringo, Kajiado, Kitui, Kilifi, Mandera, Samburu, Taita Taveta and West Pokot with the aim of improving the functionality and climate resilience of their rural water systems. The approach will improve the efficiency of Operations and Maintenance (O&M) systems and the commercial viability of selected rural water systems within the eight counties.

Applying lessons from our earlier success in the Kenya Market Assistance Programme, the project aims to enhance public-private-community partnership models to improve water service delivery. It engages with private sector operators, contractors, managers, investors, and technology providers, presenting tried and tested market-based options. Lastly, it will strengthen county-level capacity to monitor the performance of the counties' water systems.

This four-year project is part of the SNV framework approach, Climate Resilient Rural WASH Services.


  1. To implement innovative and sustainable PPCPs in the eight ASAL (Arid and Semi-Arid Land Areas) counties.

  2. To improve delivery of water supply services in all eight ASAL counties.

Partnerships for rural water

Discover the transformative impact of SNV's public-private-community partnerships for water infrastructure management in the Kenyan county of Taita Taveta.

Witness how this innovative collaboration is creating more reliable and sustainable water structures, which are vital in increasing the community's resilience to droughts.

News and stories


Signed! New rural water supply management contracts in Kenya

Water collection in rural Kenya

Our donors and partners

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More information?

In this 2-page brief, we describe the key challenges faced by Water User Associations (WUAs) in actively managing rural water services. Learn more about how this project is contributing to, (i) increasing private sector involvement in WASH, (ii) strengthening the capacity of WUAs, and (iii) climate proofing rural water systems.